[69] The Aulic Council held standing over many judicial disputes of state, both in concurrence with the Imperial Chamber court and exclusively on their own. In 996 Otto III appointed his cousin Gregory V the first German Pope. After that, the king managed to control the appointment of dukes and often also employed bishops in administrative affairs.[47]:212–13. Many of these Kleinstaaten ("little states") covered no more than a few square miles, and/or included several non-contiguous pieces, so the Empire was often called a Flickenteppich ("patchwork carpet"). After the Dutch revolt against Spain erupted, the Empire remained neutral, de facto allowing the Netherlands to depart the empire in 1581, a secession acknowledged in 1648. By then, it largely contained only German-speaking territories, plus the Kingdom of Bohemia. Contradicting the traditional view concerning that designation, Hermann Weisert has argued in a study on imperial titulature that, despite the claims of many textbooks, the name "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" never had an official status and points out that documents were thirty times as likely to omit the national suffix as include it. Le duc reçoit ce jour-là du pape le titre d'« Empereur et Auguste » en récompense des services rendus à la papauté et de ses victoires sur les envahisseurs hongrois. Territories in which secular authority was held by an ecclesiastical dignitary, such as an archbishop, bishop, or abbot. In 1356, Emperor Charles IV issued the Golden Bull, which limited the electors to seven: the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony, the Margrave of Brandenburg, and the archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, and Trier. The Council of Imperial Cities was not fully equal with the others; it could not vote on several matters such as the admission of new territories. Although antagonism about the expense of Byzantine domination had long persisted within Italy, a political rupture was set in motion in earnest in 726 by the iconoclasm of Emperor Leo III the Isaurian, in what Pope Gregory II saw as the latest in a series of imperial heresies. This only changed after the end of the Salian dynasty in the 12th century. For the first time, the permanent nature of the division between the Christian Churches of the empire was more or less assumed.[90]. [77], In 1495 the Reichskammergericht was established, which variously resided in Worms, Augsburg, Nuremberg, Regensburg, Speyer and Esslingen before it was moved permanently to Wetzlar. Maximilian was succeeded in 1576 by Rudolf II, a strange man who preferred classical Greek philosophy to Christianity and lived an isolated existence in Bohemia. Anabaptist, Arminian and other minor Protestant communities were also forbidden. Bohemian kings would be exempt from all future obligations to the Holy Roman Empire except for participation in the imperial councils. [46]:707 In 962, Otto was crowned emperor by Pope John XII,[46]:707 thus intertwining the affairs of the German kingdom with those of Italy and the Papacy. Up to that time, he had remained in Germany, while a deposed duke, Crescentius II, ruled over Rome and part of Italy, ostensibly in his stead. The latter would end up going to a more junior branch of the Habsburgs in the person of Charles's brother Ferdinand, while the senior branch continued to rule in Spain and in the Burgundian inheritance in the person of Charles's son, Philip II of Spain. In 1282, Rudolf I thus lent Austria and Styria to his own sons. It was divided into three classes. 1730. When he died in 1137, the princes again aimed to check royal power; accordingly they did not elect Lothair's favoured heir, his son-in-law Henry the Proud of the Welf family, but Conrad III of the Hohenstaufen family, the grandson of Emperor Henry IV and thus a nephew of Emperor Henry V. This led to over a century of strife between the two houses. [51]:123–34 The political power of the Empire was maintained, but the conflict had demonstrated the limits of the ruler's power, especially in regard to the Church, and it robbed the king of the sacral status he had previously enjoyed. Regensburg was the place where envoys met as it was where representatives of the Diet could be reached. [51]:109 The Pope, in turn, excommunicated the king, declared him deposed, and dissolved the oaths of loyalty made to Henry. During the Thirty Years' War, the Duke of Bavaria was given the right to vote as the eighth elector, and the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (colloquially, Hanover) was granted a ninth electorate; additionally, the Napoleonic Wars resulted in several electorates being reallocated, but these new electors never voted before the Empire's dissolution. As the result of Ostsiedlung, less-populated regions of Central Europe (i.e. En savoir plus. The Empire also had two courts: the Reichshofrat (also known in English as the Aulic Council) at the court of the King/Emperor, and the Reichskammergericht (Imperial Chamber Court), established with the Imperial Reform of 1495 by Maximillian I. Dans un deuxième temps, la tradition veut qu'il aille à Rome recevoir du pape le sacre et le titre impérial. It was thus increasingly in the king's own interest to strengthen the power of the territories, since the king profited from such a benefit in his own lands as well. [8] The dynastic office of Holy Roman Emperor was traditionally elective through the mostly German prince-electors, the highest-ranking noblemen of the empire; they would elect one of their peers as "King of the Romans" to be crowned emperor by the Pope, although the tradition of papal coronations was discontinued in the 16th century. Frederick's policies were primarily directed at Italy, where he clashed with the increasingly wealthy and free-minded cities of the north, especially Milan. Henry gave only lackluster support to Frederick's policies, and in a critical situation during the Italian wars, Henry refused the Emperor's plea for military support. Instead, the Reichsgut was increasingly pawned to local dukes, sometimes to raise money for the Empire, but more frequently to reward faithful duty or as an attempt to establish control over the dukes. Devenus purement honorifiques, le titre impérial et le Saint Empire romain germanique seront abolis le 12 juillet 1806 par Napoléon 1er. Lutheranism was officially recognized in the Peace of Augsburg of 1555, and Calvinism in the Peace of Westphalia of 1648. Its description comes from Héraldique Européenne. [12][13][14] Some historians refer to the coronation of Charlemagne as the origin of the empire,[15][16] while others prefer the coronation of Otto I as its beginning. [31] In the late 5th and early 6th centuries, the Merovingians, under Clovis I and his successors, consolidated Frankish tribes and extended hegemony over others to gain control of northern Gaul and the middle Rhine river valley region. De 476 à 800, la notion de l'Empire romain subsista en se modifiant. The Holy Roman Empire was neither a centralized state nor a nation-state. During the 13th century, a general structural change in how land was administered prepared the shift of political power towards the rising bourgeoisie at the expense of the aristocratic feudalism that would characterize the Late Middle Ages. To a greater extent than in other medieval kingdoms such as France and England, the emperors were unable to gain much control over the lands that they formally owned. However, that jurisdiction at the time did not include legislation, which was virtually non-existent until well into the 15th century. [30], As Roman power in Gaul declined during the 5th century, local Germanic tribes assumed control. Le Saint Empire romain germanique, qui prit en Occident, selon une forme originale et dans un cadre territorial particulier, la suite de l'Empire romain, lui-même restauré théoriquement entre 800 et 924 dans l'Empire carolingien, fut une institution essentiellement médiévale ; la suprême institution d'ailleurs, puisque, apparu en 962 grâce à l'action d'Otton le Grand, il prétendit très tôt être l' […] [32][33] By the middle of the 8th century, however, the Merovingians had been reduced to figureheads, and the Carolingians, led by Charles Martel, had become the de facto rulers. Pour la période postérieure, c'est-à-dire de 476 à 1453, il s'agit de la The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The kingdoms were: Kings often employed bishops in administrative affairs and often determined who would be appointed to ecclesiastical offices. [74], Until the 15th century the elected emperor was crowned and anointed by the Pope in Rome, among some exceptions in Ravenna, Bologna and Reims. [44]:118 Henry reached a truce with the raiding Magyars, and in 933 he won a first victory against them in the Battle of Riade. The emperor now was to be elected by a majority rather than by consent of all seven electors. Imperial power sharply deteriorated by the time of Rudolf's death in 1612. After the 13th century, the relevance of the Reichsgut faded, even though some parts of it did remain until the Empire's end in 1806. The army was half forces of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, mostly cavalry, and half forces of the Holy Roman Empire, mostly infantry. Fin du Saint Empire Romain Germanique. Upon Henry the Fowler's death, Otto, his son and designated successor,[45] was elected King in Aachen in 936. taken from "Meyers Kleines Konversationslexikon in sechs Bänden. The only Free Imperial Cities still existing as states within Germany are Hamburg and Bremen. Nevertheless, their participation was formally acknowledged only as late as 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War. This continued after Frederick was crowned Emperor in 1220. A prospective Emperor had first to be elected King of the Romans (Latin: Rex Romanorum; German: römischer König). [46]:708 Their son, Otto III, came to the throne only three years old, and was subjected to a power struggle and series of regencies until his age of majority in 994. After his victory, Frederick did not act upon his promise to keep the two realms separate. The actual end of the empire came in several steps. The Peace of Westphalia abrogated that principle by stipulating that the official religion of a territory was to be what it had been on 1 January 1624, considered to have been a "normal year". [2], Overall population figures for the Holy Roman Empire are extremely vague and vary widely. In contrast with the Reichsgut, which was mostly scattered and difficult to administer, these territories were relatively compact and thus easier to control. Although Charles of Valois had the backing of Henry, Archbishop of Cologne, a French supporter, many were not keen to see an expansion of French power, least of all Clement V. The principal rival to Charles appeared to be Rudolf, the Count Palatine. The second class, the Council of Princes, consisted of the other princes. The long conflict so bled the Empire that it never recovered its strength. Peasants were increasingly required to pay tribute to their lands. David Copperfield (1849) est un récit autobiographique dans lequel il relate son enfance malheureuse. From the High Middle Ages onwards, the Holy Roman Empire was marked by an uneasy coexistence with the princes of the local territories who were struggling to take power away from it. Un empire qui s'étendit sur l'Allemagne, le nord de l'Italie, la partie orientale de la France, les Pays-Bas, le Luxembourg, la Belgique, la République tchèque, l'Autriche, la Slovénie, les Silésie et Poméranie polonaises, dans un mouvement incessant de ses frontières. Karl Härter, "The Permanent Imperial Diet in European Context, 1663–1806", in. À l'est des « quatre fleuves » : Escaut, Meuse, Saône et Rhône, il inclut le royaume d'Allemagne et le royaume d'Italie (la Francie orientale). Bd. Elle peut se diviser en plusieurs grandes périodes. This state developed into modern Germany. Ferdinand I er, né le 10 mars 1503 à Alcalá de Henares près de Madrid et décédé le 25 juillet 1564 à Vienne en Autriche, issu de la maison de Habsbourg, est empereur romain germanique de 1556 à 1564.En 1521, il devient souverain des territoires héréditaires des Habsbourg en tant qu'archiduc d'Autriche ; en 1526, il devient roi de Bohême, de Hongrie et de Croatie. Later Emperors dispensed with the papal coronation altogether, being content with the styling Emperor-Elect: the last Emperor to be crowned by the Pope was Charles V in 1530. [27], In a famous assessment of the name, the political philosopher Voltaire remarked sardonically: "This body which was called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was in no way holy, nor Roman, nor an empire. the territory of today's Poland and Czech Republic) became German-speaking. C'est un blason réalisé pour le Projet Blasons du Wikipédia francophone Origin of picture. [46]:706 He overcame a series of revolts from a younger brother and from several dukes. Throughout the first half of its history the Holy Roman Empire was reigned by a travelling court. [75][76], In December 1497 the Aulic Council (Reichshofrat) was established in Vienna. [78], The Habsburg royal family had its own diplomats to represent its interests. [80] The Netherlands also had envoys in Regensburg. Henry added the Norman kingdom of Sicily to his domains, held English king Richard the Lionheart captive, and aimed to establish a hereditary monarchy when he died in 1197. Most rulers maintained one or a number of favourites Imperial palace sites, where they would advance development and spent most of their time: Charlemagne (Aachen from 794), Frederick II (Palermo 1220–1254), Wittelsbacher (Munich 1328–1347 and 1744–1745), Habsburger (Prague 1355–1437 and 1576–1611) and (Vienna 1438–1576, 1611–1740 and 1745–1806). The process varied greatly among the various lands and was most advanced in those territories that were almost identical to the lands of the old Germanic tribes, e.g., Bavaria. Variantes de point d'accès. Léopold Ier de Habsbourg, né à Vienne le 9 juin 1640 et décédé dans la même ville le 5 mai 1705, fut roi de Hongrie (1655) et de Bohême (1657), puis archiduc d'Autriche et élu empereur des Romains (1658). Autres identifiants. D'autre part, l'Empire d'Orient, transporté à Constantinople par Constantin, fut la continuation légale de l'Empire romain, puisque l'Empire d'Occident ne s'était pas … [73][48], The Imperial Diet (Reichstag) resided variously in Paderborn, Bad Lippspringe, Ingelheim am Rhein, Diedenhofen (now Thionville), Aachen, Worms, Forchheim, Trebur, Fritzlar, Ravenna, Quedlinburg, Dortmund, Verona, Minden, Mainz, Frankfurt am Main, Merseburg, Goslar, Würzburg, Bamberg, Schwäbisch Hall, Augsburg, Nuremberg, Quierzy-sur-Oise, Speyer, Gelnhausen, Erfurt, Eger (now Cheb), Esslingen, Lindau, Freiburg, Cologne, Konstanz and Trier before it was moved permanently to Regensburg. This comprehensive list included public roads, tariffs, coining, collecting punitive fees, and the investiture or seating and unseating of office holders.